It’s a big, overarching question that helps you to make progress on a research goal. You can answer your Goal Question by asking and answering a series of bite-sized research questions, or Natural Next Questions (NNQs).
Here are some examples of Goal Questions from a variety of college classes:
To launch an open inquiry research process, you must start with a Goal Question.
Watch this video by Dr. Lindy Elkins-Tanton how to write a Goal Question (used for a space exploration class).